ZIPAR CORNER with MALINDI MSONI & SHEBO NALISHEBO
THE Zambian government has to date issued three Eurobonds: one worth US$750 million in 2012, another for US$1 billion in 2014 and for US$1.25 billion in 2015. While Eurobond issuances present several benefits for the country, notably increased financing for infrastructure development, they also expose the country to significant risks. Because they are denominated in United States (US) dollars, Eurobonds are susceptible to losses resulting from adverse fluctuations in the exchange rate, known as currency risks.
The Kwacha has continued to depreciate against the US dollar, falling by more than two-thirds since January. This has, among other things, increased the debt servicing costs of the Eurobonds in Kwacha terms. Managing the risks arising from the Kwacha depreciation is crucial, especially that experts expect the currency to remain under pressure, against the background of growing domestic demand for the US dollar, a strengthening US dollar trend, falling copper prices and a slow-down in the Chinese economy. One way in which the Zambian government can manage currency risks is through derivatives.
Derivatives offer important opportunities for governments to reduce the losses resulting from negative movements in exchange rates. As its name suggests, a derivative is a financial instrument that derives its value from the value of an underlying asset, such as equities, foreign currencies and commodities. The value of a derivative instrument is then determined from the corresponding equity prices, exchange rates or commodity prices. Derivatives allow investors to hedge (protect) their investments against currency risks.
There are several derivative instruments that public debt managers can use to reduce the currency risk exposure of government portfolios. However, long-term foreign currency debt such as Eurobonds should be hedged using what are called â€œoptionsâ€ or â€œswapsâ€. Currency options give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a particular amount of currency at a predetermined exchange rate at a specified future date. Currency swaps are financial operations during which two parties agree to exchange a certain amount of currencies for a stated period of time. Emerging countries such as Brazil, India, Mexico and Argentina use derivative instruments to hedge currency risks.
With the recently issued Eurobond, Government will now have to pay annual interest in excess of US$240 million. Annual interest payments on the first two Eurobonds are made in two instalments; US$21.1 million on March 20 and September 20, and US$42.5 million on April 14 and October 14. Government will also make two interest payments on the third Eurobond annually.
To illustrate the impact of currency risks, theÂ September 20 annual interest payment on the US$750 million Eurobond cost the government K111.4 million in 2013 and K130.6 million in 2014 when the Kwacha was trading at K5.28/US$ and K6.19/US$, respectively. However, a similar payment cost the government K211 million on September 20, when the Kwacha was trading at K10.00/US$. This amounts to currency losses of about K100 million between 2013 and 2015, on the US$750 million Eurobond alone.
Exposure to currency risks in Zambia is worsened by among other things, the countryâ€™s heavy reliance on copper exports for foreign exchange. In the absence of policy intervention, it is likely that the Kwacha largely responds to international prices of copper. Copper prices have fallen by more than 20 percent since January, reaching a record low of US$4960.00 per tonne on September 28. This saw the Kwacha falling to a record low of US$11.61.
While borrowing on the sovereign bond market is agreeably cheaper than borrowing domestically, ultimately, it is likely that the cost of Eurobond repayment will depend largely on the evolution of the exchange rate over the life of the three bonds. Unmanaged, the weakening currency could greatly increase future external debt servicing costs. Moreover, currency risks are historically a dominant cause of debt crises. This is evidenced in the case of Argentina in the 1980s when the peso deteriorated severely against the US dollar that the countryâ€™s debt repayment obligations in peso terms grew substantially and ultimately led to an unprecedented default.
In view of the risks associated with foreign currency exposure, government should consider using derivatives to reduce its exposure to currency risks. Currency options in particular are more ideal for developing countries, as they provide cover against currency risks without giving up the benefits of an exchange rate appreciation. However, reducing governmentâ€™s exposure to currency risks is a gradual one as it relies on the development of hedging instruments. Currently, the derivatives market in Zambia only trades futures contracts. Nevertheless, in the short term, Government should continue to support efforts to make institutional arrangements that provide appropriate incentive structures for debt management. Governmentâ€™s efforts to set up a sinking fund are commendable in this regard.
Zambia has a difficult history of debt and it would be prudent to avoid a repeat of past debt crises. Eurobonds have possibly brought benefits to Zambia, but there are risks, such as those associated with the depreciating Kwacha. Continued enjoyment of these benefits relies on what measures we take now to reduce these challenges.
The authors are researchers at the Zambia Institute for Policy Analysis and Research (ZIPAR). For details contact: The Executive Director, ZIPAR, corner of John Mbita and Nationalist roads, CSO Annex building, P.O. Box 50782, Lusaka. Telephone: +260 211 252559. Email: email@example.com.
ZIPAR CORNER with MALINDI MSONI & SHEBO NALISHEBO